Overview

You can choose between Galera or Master/Slave replication. We like to recommend to use Galera for higher redudancy, easier operations, und synchronous semantics (so you can run OX without our "replication monitor").

Galera database setup

OX supports the "Percona XtraDB Cluster 5.5" flavor of the Galera database and starting with OX 7.8.0 also version 5.6.x.


Installation

Debian systems

The following has been adjusted to work with Wheezy, but works similar with Squeeze, only the repo paths need adjustments.

To install the software, we first need to configure the repository and its build key, update our sources lists and install the packages:

gpg --keyserver  hkp://keys.gnupg.net --recv-keys 1C4CBDCDCD2EFD2A
gpg -a --export CD2EFD2A | apt-key add -

cat >/etc/apt/sources.list.d/percona.list <<EOF
deb http://repo.percona.com/apt wheezy main
deb-src http://repo.percona.com/apt wheezy main
EOF

apt-get update
apt-get install percona-xtradb-cluster-client-5.5 percona-xtradb-cluster-server-5.5 percona-xtrabackup

RHEL 6 systems

Should also apply to CentOS 6.

First, disable selinux, iptables, ip6tables. (Galera does not run with selinux. Using iptables and ip6tables should work if you configure it correctly, but documentation thereof is out of scope of this document.) Reboot.

Percona XtraDB Cluster relies on socat which is not shipped by RHEL. We need to install from a different source. The epel repository can be used for that.

yum install epel-release
yum install socat

The installation command itself needs to be a composite remove, install command since yum is not clever enough to resolve the conflicts itself, so we need to tell it how.

wget http://www.percona.com/downloads/percona-release/percona-release-0.0-1.x86_64.rpm
yum localinstall percona-release-0.0-1.x86_64.rpm
yum shell
remove mysql-libs
install Percona-XtraDB-Cluster-server-55 Percona-XtraDB-Cluster-client-55
run
quit

Once this is all done, don't forget to run the update command to get the latest Percona packages.

yum update

Configuration

Galera-specific MySQL configuration advise is included in our main (non-Galera-related) MySQL configuration article. Please consult that page for configuration information.

Cluster startup

Whenever not all nodes of a Galera cluster are running (like before starting the cluster for the very first time), the first Galera node needs to get started with the wsrep_cluster_address parameter overridden to the value "gcomm://" in order to denote that the node shall not try to join an existing cluster (which would inevitably fail now, because no other cluster nodes are running yet), but to bootstrap the cluster instead. This override can most conveniently done on the command line, instead of editing to wsrep.cnf file to and fro.

So, for the first node, the startup command is

mysqld_safe --wsrep_cluster_address=gcomm:// &

You should then verify the Galera module is loaded properly using

mysql -e "show status like 'wsrep%';"

You should verify some settings like

| wsrep_local_state_comment  | Synced                               |
| wsrep_cluster_size         | 1                                    |
| wsrep_cluster_status       | Primary                              |
| wsrep_connected            | ON                                   |
| wsrep_provider_name        | Galera                               |
| wsrep_provider_vendor      | Codership Oy <info@codership.com>    |
| wsrep_provider_version     | 2.8(r162)                            |
| wsrep_ready                | ON                                   |

Now you need to create the database user (we will use the same username and password as we defined in the previous section when setting up wsrep.cnf file) for the replication on this first node:

# create wsrep user: in mysql shell:
CREATE USER 'wsrep'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY '5ojijmedUg8';
GRANT RELOAD, LOCK TABLES, REPLICATION CLIENT ON *.* TO 'wsrep'@'localhost';
FLUSH PRIVILEGES;

The Galera peers can then be started on the nodes 2 and 3 using

mysqld_safe &

Since the standard service startup scripts cannot account for this special treatment, we recomment not to use them.

You can check the status of the Galera cluster using

mysql -e "show status like 'wsrep%';"

The output is lengthy. The most relevant fields are given as follows:

+----------------------------+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Variable_name              | Value                                                                |
+----------------------------+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
| wsrep_local_state_comment  | Synced                                                               |
| wsrep_incoming_addresses   | <GALERA_NODE1_IP>:3306,<GALERA_NODE2_IP>:3306,<GALERA_NODE3_IP>:3306 |
| wsrep_cluster_size         | 3                                                                    |
| wsrep_cluster_status       | Primary                                                              |
| wsrep_connected            | ON                                                                   |
| wsrep_ready                | ON                                                                   |
+----------------------------+----------------------------------------------------------------------+

Troubleshooting

The logs are helpful. Always.

Common mistakes are listed below.

If the Galera module does not get loaded at all:

  • Configuration settings in my.cnf which are incompatible to Galera
  • Wrong path of the shared object providing the Galera plugin in wsrep.cnf (wsrep_provider)

If the first node starts, but the second / third nodes can not be added to the cluster:

  • User for the replication not created correctly on the first Galera node

Notes about configuring OX for use with Galera

Write requests

Open-Xchange supports Galera as database backend only in the configuration where all writes are directed to one Galera node. For availability, it makes sense to not configure one Galera node's IP address directly, but rather employ some HA solution which offers active-passive functionality. Options therefore are discussed below.

Read requests

Read requests can be directed to any node in the Galera cluster. Our standard approach is to recommend to use a loadbalancer to implement round-robin over all nodes in a Galera cluster for the read requests. But you can also chose to use a dedicated read node (the same node, or a different node, than the write node). Each of the approaches has its own advantages.

  • Load balancer based setup: Read requests get distributed round-robin between the Galera nodes. Theoretically by distributing the load of the read requests, you benefit from lower latencies and more throughput. But this has never been benchmarked yet. For a discussion of available loadbalances, see next section. OX-wise, in this configuration, you have two alternatives:
    • The Galera option wsrep_causal_reads=1 option enables you to configure OX with its replication monitor disabled (com.openexchange.database.replicationMonitor=false in configdb.properties). This is the setup which seems to perform best according to our experience as turning off the replication monitor reduces the commits on the DB and thus the write operations per second on the underlying storage significantly, which outweights the drawback from having higher commit latency due to fully synchronous mode.
    • Alternatively, you can run Galera with wsrep_causal_reads=0 when switching on OX builtin replication monitor. This is also a valid setup.
  • Use a designated floating IP for the read requests: This eliminates the need of a load balancer. With this option you will not gain any performance, but the quantitative benefit is unclear anyhow.
  • Use the floating IP for the writes also for the reads: In this scenario, you direct all database queries only to one Galera node, and the other two nodes are only getting queries in case of a failure of that node. In this case, you can even use wsrep_causal_reads=0 while still having OX builtin replication monitor switched off. However we do not expect this option to be superior to the round-robin loadbalancer approach.

Loadbalancer options

While the JDBC driver has some round-robin load balancing capabilities built-in, we don't recommend it for production use since it lacks possibilities to check the Galera nodes health states.

Loadbalancers used for OX -> Galera loadbalancing should be able to implement active-passive instances for the write requests, and active-active (round-robin) instances for the read requests. (If they cannot implement active-passive, you can still take a floating IP therefore.) Furthermore it is required to configure node health checks not only on the TCP level (by a simple connect), but to query the Galera health status periodically, evaluating Galera WSREP status variables. Otherwise split-brain scenarios or other bad states cannot be detected. For an example of such an health check, see our Clustercheck page.

Some customers use loadbalancing appliances. It is important to check that if the (virtual) infrastructure offers "loadbalancer" instances that they satisfy the given requirements. Often this is not the case. In particular, a simple "DNS round robin" approach is not viable.

LVS/ipvsadm/keepalived

If you want to create your own loadbalancers based on Linux, we usually recommend LVS (Linux Virtual Servers) controlled by Keepalived. LVS is a set of kernel modules implementing a L4 loadbalancer which performs quite well. Keepalived is a userspace daemon to control LVS rules, using health checks to reconfigure LVS rules if required. Keepalived / LVS requires one (or, for availability, two) dedicated linux nodes to run on. This can be a disadvantage for some installations, but usually, it pays off. We provide some configuration information on Keepalived here.

MariaDB Maxscale

Since Maxscale has become GA in 2015, it seems to have undergone significant stability, performance and functional improvements. We are currently experimenting with Maxscale and share our installation / configuration knowledge here. It looks quite promising and might become the standard replacement for HAproxy, while we still presume Keepalived offers superior robustness and performance, coming with the cost of the requirement for one (or more) dedicated loadbalancer nodes.

HAproxy

In case where the Keepalived based approach is not feasible due to its requirements on the infrastructure, it is also possible to use a HAproxy based solution where HAproxy processes run on each of the OX nodes, configured for one round-robin and one active/passive instance. OX is then connecting to the local HAproxy instances. It is vital to configure HAproxy timeouts different from the defaults, otherwise HAproxy will kill active DB connections, causing errors. Be aware that in large installations the number of (distributed) HAproxy instances can get quite large. Some configuration hints for HAproxy are available here.

Master/Slave database setup

While we also support also "legacy" (pre-GTID) Master/Slave replication, we recommend to use GTID based replication, for easier setup and failure recovery. Support for GTID based replication has been added with OX 7.8.0.

GTID has been available since MySQL 5.6, so no 5.5 installation instructions below, sorry. We try to be generic in this documentation (thus, applicable to Oracle Community Edition and MariaDB) and point out differences where needed.

Preparations

Our configuration process includes wiping and reinitializing the datadir. This is usually not a matter in a fresh installation. If you want to upgrade an existing database to GTID master-slave, please prepared to wipe the datadir, i.e. take a mysqldump for later restoration into the properly configured master.

Depeding on the flavor of the current database, this can be something like

# mariadb or oracle mysql without GTIDs
mysqldump --databases configdb oxdb_{5..14} > backup.sql

# mysql 5.6 with GTIDs... we dont want GTIDs here
mysqldump --databases --set-gtid-purged=OFF configdb oxdb_{5..14} > backup.sql

Be sure to verify the list of databases.

Installation

Notes for installing from "upstream" follow. When using the DB which comes with the OS, see the corresponding upstream section.

Software installation is identical for master and slave.

This documentation has been created and verified on Debian Jessie. We assume the extrapolation on RPM-based distributions is straightforward. Consult the upstream documentation.

MariaDB 10.0, 10.1

Following https://downloads.mariadb.org/mariadb/repositories/

Basic software installation:

apt-get install software-properties-common
apt-key adv --recv-keys --keyserver keyserver.ubuntu.com 0xcbcb082a1bb943db
# use 10.0 or 10.1 in the next line
# there are multiple mirrors available, see the mariadb downloads page
add-apt-repository 'deb [arch=amd64,i386,ppc64el] http://ftp.hosteurope.de/mirror/mariadb.org/repo/10.1/debian jessie main'

apt-get update
apt-get install mariadb-server

The MariaDB package scripts start the service. So we need to stop it in order to apply our custom config.

service mysql stop

Oracle Community Edition

Following https://dev.mysql.com/doc/mysql-apt-repo-quick-guide/en/

dpkg -i mysql-apt-config_0.8.7-1_all.deb
# select a version in graphical thing; supported as of time of writing are 5.6 and 5.7
apt-get update
apt-get install mysql-server

Configuration

Configuration as per configuration files is also identical for master and slave.

Consult My.cnf for general recommendations how to configure databases for usage with OX.

For GTID based replication, make sure you add some configurables to a new /etc/mysql/ox.conf.d/gtid.cnf file (assuming you are following our proposed schema of adding a !includedir /etc/mysql/ox.conf.d/" directive to /etc/mysql/my.cnf):

# GTID
log-bin=mysql-bin
server-id=...
log_slave_updates = ON

Oracle Community Edition: we need to add also

enforce_gtid_consistency = ON
gtid_mode = ON

(GTID mode is on by default on MariaDB.)

Use unique a server-id for each server; like 1 for the master, 2 for slave. For more complicated setups (like multiple slaves), adjust accordingly.

Since applying our configuration / sizing requires reinitialization of the MySQL datadir, we wipe/recreate it. Caution: this assumes we are running an empty database. If there is data in the database you want to keep, use mysqldump. See Preparation section above.

So, to initialize the datadir:

rm -rf /var/log/mysql/*
cd /var/lib/
mv mysql mysql.old.datadir
mkdir mysql
chown mysql.mysql mysql

(When coming from an existing installation, be sure to wipe also old binlogs. They can confuse the server on startup. Their location varies by configuration.)

The step to initialize the datadir is different for the different DBs:

# MariaDB 10.0, 10.1
mysql_install_db

# Oracle 5.6
mysql_install_db -u mysql

# Oracle 5.7
mysqld --initialize-insecure --user=mysql

(Don't be worried about the insecure, it just means we set the db root pw in the next steps.)

Then:

service mysql restart
mysql_secure_installation

We want to emphasize the last step to run "secure".

Steps up to here apply to both the designated master and slave. The next steps will apply to the master.

Replication Setup

Master Setup

Create a replication user on the master (but, as always, pick your own password, and use the same password in the slave setup below):

mysql -e "CREATE USER 'repl'@'gtid-slave.localdomain' IDENTIFIED BY 'IvIjyoffod2'; GRANT REPLICATION SLAVE ON *.* TO 'repl'@'gtid-slave.localdomain';"

Now would also be the time to restore a previously created mysqldump, or add other users you need for adminstration, monitoring etc (like debian-sys-maint@localhost, for example). Adding the OX users is explained below ("Creating Open-Xchange user").

# If you took a dump for restore before
mysql < backup.sql

To prepare for the initial sync of the slave, set the master read-only:

mysql -e "SET @@global.read_only = ON;"

Create a dump to initialize the slave:

# MariaDB
mysqldump --all-databases --triggers --routines --events --master-data --gtid > master.sql

# Oracle
mysqldump --all-databases --triggers --routines --events --set-gtid-purged=ON > master.sql

Transfer to the slave:

scp master.sql gtid-slave:

Slave Setup

Configure the replication master settings. Note we don't need complicated binlog position settings etc with GTID.

Yet again DB-specific (use the repl user password from above):

# MariaDB
mysql -e 'CHANGE MASTER TO MASTER_HOST="gtid-master.localdomain", MASTER_USER="repl", MASTER_PASSWORD="IvIjyoffod2";'

# Oracle
mysql -e "CHANGE MASTER TO MASTER_HOST='gtid-master.localdomain', MASTER_USER='repl', MASTER_PASSWORD='IvIjyoffod2', MASTER_AUTO_POSITION=1;"
# https://www.percona.com/blog/2013/02/08/how-to-createrestore-a-slave-using-gtid-replication-in-mysql-5-6/
mysql -e "RESET MASTER;"

Read the master dump:

mysql < master.sql

Start replication on the slave:

mysql -e 'START SLAVE;'
mysql -e 'SHOW SLAVE STATUS\G'

Master Setup (continued)

Finally, unset read-only on the master:

# on the master
mysql -e "SET @@global.read_only = OFF;"

Configure OX to use with Master/Slave replication

Not much special wisdom here. OX was designed to be used with master/slave databases. For the ConfigDB, configdb.properties allows configuration of a readUrl and writeUrl (both of which are set to the correct values if you use oxinstaller with the correct arguments --configdb-readhost, --configdb-writehost).

(Obviously, the master is for writing and the slave is for reading.)

For the individiual UserDBs, use registerdatabase -m true for the masters and registerdatabase -m false -M ... for the respective slaves.

Be sure to have enabled the replication monitor in configdb.properties: com.openexchange.database.replicationMonitor=true (which it is by default); while GTID can show synchronous semantics, it is specified to silently fall back to asynchronous in certain circumstances, so synchronity is not guaranteed.

We recommend, though, to not register the databases directly by their native hostname or IP, but rather use some kind of HA system in order to be able to easily move a floating/failover IP from the master to the slave in case of master failure. Configuring and running such systems (like, corosync/pacemaker, keepalived, or whatever) is out of scope of this documentation, however.

Creating Open-Xchange user

Now setup access for the Open-Xchange Server database user 'openexchange' to configdb and the oxdb for both groupware server addresses. These databases do not exist yet, but will be created during the Open-Xchange Server installation.

Note: The IPs in this example belong to the two different Open-Xchange Servers, please adjust them accordingly. And use a real password.

mysql> GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 'openexchange'@'10.20.30.213' IDENTIFIED BY 'IntyoyntOat1';
mysql> GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 'openexchange'@'10.20.30.215' IDENTIFIED BY 'IntyoyntOat1';